Jha, V. (2013) Elimination of trade barriers for certain renewable energy products in the context of energy sector reforms: modelling of ecological and economic impact within a framework of general equilibrium (Geneva: ICTSD), www.ictsd.org/downloads/2013/12/removing-trade-barriers-on-selected-renewable-energy-products-in-the-context-of-energy-sector-reforms.pdf (available October 26, 2015). The failure of Doha has enabled China to reach a global level of trade. It has signed bilateral trade agreements with dozens of countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Chinese companies have the right to develop the country`s oil and other raw materials. In return, China offers credit and technical or commercial assistance. 37The measure of trade in sustainable energy goods is not easy, not least because many of the goods used for renewable energy production are only a small part of a large customs code and many also have co-use products (Jha, 2009). In 2007, exports of technologies for single-profit renewable energy amounted to $64.7 billion, of which intra-EU trade amounted to about $21.6 billion, of which about $18 billion came from developing countries, particularly China (Jha, 2009). 11See management in the 2030 agenda reflects the view that trade, if properly regulated, can contribute to growth and sustainable development. The SDGs therefore contain several objectives related to a large number of trade-related policy reforms (“trade-related objectives” as AN).
As drivers of sustainable economic growth, many of these goals could indeed contribute to a wide range of goals, in particular Goal 1, which aims to eradicate poverty in all its forms. The FFD result in turn reflects many of the same multilateral trade objectives, but updates them by referring to recent WTO decisions and complements them – which is essential – with commitments on other important issues, including trade finance and regional trade agreements and integration. Given the slow pace of negotiations to change multilateral trade rules, these more active areas of trade policy provide important opportunities for governments to use trade policy to advance their sustainable development goals in the short term. The anti-globalization movement is almost by definition opposed to such agreements, but some groups that are normally allied within this movement, for example the green parties. B, aspire to fair trade or secure trade rules that moderate the real and perceived negative effects of globalization. Campling, L. (2015) Tariff Escalation and Preferences in International Fish Production and Trade, E15 Expert Group on Oceans, Fisheries and the Trade System Think Piece (Geneva: ICTSD-World Economic Forum), e15initiative.org/publications/tariff-escalation-and-preferences-in-international-fish-production-and-trade/ (available October 26, 2015). 7 To respond to these criticisms, the June 2012 Rio-20 Conference on Sustainable Development (United Nations General Assembly, 2012) set out a mandate for a new agenda that would “address and take into account in a balanced way the three dimensions of sustainable development and its interdependencies” (paragraph 246) and that “would apply universally to all countries, taking into account different national situations ” … (abs)